Common Precipitants Of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure
Precipitants Of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure
Keywords:Acute decompensated heart failure, precipitant, common
Introduction: Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is a common acute heart failure syndrome, and it is often caused by certain factors called precipitants. However, the common precipitants of ADHF in our locale have not been well documented.
Aim: To determine the common factors that precipitate acute decompensated heart failure in our locale.
Materials and Method: This was a retrospective study of acute heart failure patients hospitalized from January 2019 to June 2020 in a university teaching hospital. The age, gender, blood pressures were extracted from the records. Others included the cause of heart failure, precipitant of acute decompensation and left ventricular ejection fraction. The data were managed as appropriate, and p values less than 0.05 were statistically significant.
Results: There were 165 cases of ADHF and 86 (52.1%) were males with a median age of 57 years. Precipitants of ADHF were identified in 128(77.6%) of cases. The prevalence of the precipitants were pneumonia (PMN) 66 (51.5%), poor drug adherence (PDA) 47(36.7%), arrhythmia 38 (29.7%), urinary tract infections (UTI) 16.4% and renal dysfunction (10.2%). The others were acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (6.3%), severe hypertension (4.7%). The association of PMN, PDA and arrhythmias among age groups yielded p values of 0.019, 0.010 and 0.016, respectively.
Conclusion: Most cases of ADHF (77.6%) are caused by precipitants. Pneumonia, poor drug adherence and arrhythmias are the common precipitants of ADHF, and they are associated with the elderly. Therefore, these factors should be actively sought for during initial evaluation, and measures for prevention initiated.
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