Acute Kidney Injury in Adult Nigerians: A Single Centre Experience
Background: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is an abrupt and sustained rise in serum creatinine, urine output or both. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality especially among hospitalised patients. Despite the poor outcome associated with the problem, data is lacking regarding the epidemiology of AKI in developing countries.
Objectives: To determine the incidence of AKI among medical admissions, to study the aetiological pattern, clinical presentation, complications and short-term outcome of the disease; and to determine the predictor of poor outcome among cases studied.
Methodology: This was a retrospective study. The case records of all cases of diagnosed AKI admitted into the medical wards for a period of 2 years was reviewed. AKI was regarded as sudden deterioration in renal function (azotaemia) with or without oliguria; and the absence of any evidence of chronicity.
Results: There were 2431 Medical admissions during the study period and of these, there were 33 cases of AKI with an incidence rate of 13.5 per 1000. Patients were aged 18-95 years with a mean age of 37.4±18.6 years. The commonest presenting symptoms were fever (64.5%), leg swelling (64.5%), vomiting (54.8%) and oliguria (61.2%). 77.4% patients had proteinuria, 64.5% were anaemic while 54.8% had elevated blood pressure. The commonest cause of AKI was Sepsis (45.1%). 61.2% had haemodialysis. Mortality rate was 41.9%. Not having haemodialysis was significantly associated with poor outcome.
Conclusion: AKI is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Late presentation and delayed or lack of access to dialysis are major difficulties encountered.
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