Unilateral Renal Agenesis:

A Case Report


  • B O Okperi
  • E N Ugwu


Unilateral renal agenesis is the congenital absence of one kidney. The incidence ranges from 1:500 to 1:3200 with a slight male preponderence. The diagnosis is usually made as an incidental finding. Complications such as hypertention, proteinuria and renal impairemnt are commoner in this condition than in those with both kidneys, though majority will lead a normal life.

We present a four year old girl who presented with anarsaca and proteinuria and was found to have a solitary left kidney. She reponded to prednisolone but is currently on captopril and levamisol and has been asymptomatic for five years

Author Biography


Department of Paediatrics,

Delta State University Abraka,

C/O P O Box 3217

Warri, Delta State

Tel: 08026239010


Emmanuel B, Nachman R, Aronson N, Weis H. Congenital solitary kidney: A review of 74cases. Am J Dis Child. 1974; 127: 17-19

Parikh CR, McCall D, Engelman C, Schrier RW. Congenital renal agenesis: case-control analysis of birth characteristics. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002; 39: 689-694

Robson WM, Leug AC, Rogers RC. Unilateral renal agenesis. Advances in Pediatrics. 1995; 42: 575-591

Wiersman AF, Peterson LF, Justena EJ. Uterine anomalies associated with unilateral renal agenesis. Obstet Gynecol 1976; 47: 654-657

Li S, Qayuun A, Coakley FV, Hrick H. Association of renal agenesis and mullerian duct abnormalities. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2000; 24: 829-834

Duncan PA, Shapiro LR, Stangel JJ et al. The MURCS association: Mullerian duct aplasia, renal aplasia and cervicothoracic somite dysplasia. J Pediatr 1979; 95: 399-402

McCallum TJ, Millunsky TM, Munarriz R, Carson R, Sadeghi-Nejaad H, Oates RD. Unilateral renal agenesis associated with congenital absence of vas diferens: phenotypical findindings and genetic Unilateral Renal Agenesis: A Case Report considerations. Human Reproduction 2001; 16(2): 283-288

Yalavrthy R, Parikh CR. Congenital renal agenesis. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2003; 14: 336-341

Temple JK, Shapira E. Genetic determinants of renal disease in neonates. Clin Perinatol. 1981; 8: 361-373

Woolf AS, Hillman KA. Unilateral renal agenesis and the congenital solitary functioning kidney: Developmental genetics and clinical perspectives. BJU Internatiomal 2006; 99: 17-21

Abe K, Honein MA, Moore CA. Maternal febrile illness, medication use, alcohol consumption and risk of congenital renal abnormalities. Birth Dfects Resp Part A. Clin Molecular Teratol. 2003; 67(11): 911-918

Nielson GL, Puho E, Rothman KJ, Sorensen HT, Czeizel AE. Risk of congenital abnormalities in offsprings of women withdiabetes. Diabetes Mwd 2005; 22(6): 693- 696

Moore LL, Singer MR, Bradlee ML, Rothman KJ, Milunsky A. A prospective study of risk of congenital defects associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus. Epidemiology 2009; 11: 689-694

BirthDefectsseries:TexasDevelopmentof State Health Services. Cited on Jnuary 1st 2011. Available at: http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/birthdefects/ris k/risk22-renal.shtm.

Hiraoka M, Tsukahara H, Oshima Y, Kasuga K, Ishihara Y, Mayumi M. Renal aplasia is the predominant cause of congenital solitary kidney. Kidney Int 2002; 61(5): 1840-1844

Renal agenesis Surveillance- United States. Cited on january 1st 2011 at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmw rhtml/0000130.htm

Maluf NS. On the enlargement of the normal congenitally solitary kidney. B J Urol. 1997; 79: 836-841

Hill LM, Nowak A, Hartle R, Tush B. Fetal compensatory renal hypertrophy with a unilateral functioning kidney. Ultrsound Obstet Gynecol. 2000; 15: 191-193

Sharp DA, Rose JH. Attitude of Pediatrc urologists regarding sports participation by children with solitary kidney. Journal of Urology 2002; 168(4): 1811-1815

Karen Psooy. Sports and solitary kidney: what parents with a young child with a solitary kidney should know. Canadian Urol Assoc J 2009; 3 (1): 67-68

Grinsell MM et al. Single kidney and sports participation: Perception versus reality. Pediatr 2006; 118: 1019-1027

Argueso LR, Ritcyey ML, Boyle ET Jnr, Milliner DS, Bergstraih EJ, Kramer SA. Prognosis of patients with unilateral renal agenesis. Pediatr Nphrol. 1992; 6 : 412-416

Gonzalez E, Gutierrez E, Morales et al. Factors influencing the progression of renal damage in patients with unilateral renal agenesis and remnant kidney. Kidney Int. 2005; 68: 263-270

Valentini RP, Langenburg S, Imam A, Matto IK, Zerin JM. MRI Detection of atrophic kidney in a hypertensive child with single kidney. Pediatr Nephrol 2005; 20(8): 1192- 1194




How to Cite

McGIL UGWU, G. I. ., Okperi, B. O. ., & Ugwu, E. N. . (2020). Unilateral Renal Agenesis: : A Case Report. African Journal of Tropical Medicine and Biomedical Research, 1(3), 75-79. Retrieved from https://www.ajtmbr.org.ng/index.php/home/article/view/20