Effects of Sub Chronic Exposure to Diesel Combustion Fumes on Hematological Parameters of Wister Rats
Keywords:Sub-chronic exposure, Combustion fume, Hematological parameters
Introduction: Several studies on the health effects of diesel exhaust from conventional road and non road sources have been documented but no record of any such work done on combustion fumes from a diesel lamp.
Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of exposure to diesel combustion fumes from an open lamp on the haematological parameters of Wister rats.
Method: Fifteen rats were weighed and divided into 3 groups, n = 5; control rats were unexposed to diesel combustion fumes, group A and group B rats had daily (4hrs) exposure to diesel combustion fumes in an enclosed chamber with open vents for 2 and 3 weeks respectively. At the end of which they were weighed again before their hematological parameters were assessed using standard laboratory methods.
Result: The results showed a statistically significant difference in mean blood level of bicarbonate ions of 20.0±1.47mmol/Linthecontrolgroupcomparedto25.25±0.85mmol/L inratsexposedtofumesfor 3 weeks. It also showed decreases in the mean packed cell volume, blood hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count (relative lymphocytosis). Increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate accompanied by increasing neutrophil counts in rats in groups A and B compared with their matched controls. These changes were however not statistically significant (all P> 0.05).
Conclusion: There was no significant impact of diesel exhaust fume from the lamp on most of the hematological parameters assessed in this study.
USA EPA .United States Environmental Protection Agency. Health Assessment Document for Diesel engine Exhaust. 2002
Attfield, MD; Trabant, GD; Wheeler RW. Exposure to diesel fumes and dust at six potash mines. Ann Occup Hyg.1982;26:817-831
El-Batawi MA, Noweir, MH. Health problems resulting from prolonged exposure to air pollution in diesel bus garages. Ind Health.1996; 4:1-10
Battigelli MC. Effects of diesel exhaust. Arch Environ Health 1965;10:165-167.
PepelkoWE,Mattox JK,Yang,YY, Moore W, Jr. Pulmonary function and pathology in cats exposed 28 days to diesel exhaust. J Environ Pathol Toxicol 1980;4:449-458
White HJ, Garg, BD. Early pulmonary response of the rat lung to inhalation of high concentration of diesel particles. J Appl Toxicol 1980;1:104-110.
Takano H, Yoshikawa T, Ichinose T , Miyabara Y, ImaokaK. Sagai M. Diesel exhaust particles enhance antigen-induced airway inflammation and local cytokine expression in mice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.1997; 156:36-42.
Hall NEL, Wynder EL. Diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer: a case-control study. Environ Res 1984; 34:77-86.
Ishinishi N,KuwabaraN,TakakiY,Nagase S, Suzuki T, Nakajima T, Maejima K , Kato A , Nakamura M. Long-term inhalation experiments on DE. In: DE and health risks: results of the HERP studies. Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan: Japan Automobile Research Institute, Inc., Research Committee for HERP Studies; 1988. 11-84.
Brightwell J, Fouillet X, Cassano-Zoppi , AL Gatz R , Duchosal F . Neoplastic and functional changes in rodents after chronic inhalation of engine exhaust emissions. In: Carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of diesel engine exhaust. Ishinishi, N; Koizumi, A; McClellan, R; et al., eds. Amsterdam:Elsevier; 1986. 471-485.
Brightwell J, Fouillet X, Cassano-Zoppi AL, Bernstein D, Crawley F, Duchosal F, Gatz R , Perczel S , Pfeifer H Tumors of the respiratory tract in rats and hamsters following chronic inhalation of engine exhaust emissions. J Appl Toxicol 1989;9:23-31.
Iwai K,HiguchiK,UdagawaT,OhtomoK, Kawabata Y. Lung tumor induced by long- term inhalation or intratracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particles. Exp Pathol Toxicol1997; 49:393-401.
Vallyathan V, Virmani R, Rochlani S, Green FH, Lewis T..Effect of diesel emissions and coal dust inhalation on heart and pulmonary arteries of rats. Br J Ind Med1986; 14:47-55.
Penney DG, Baylerian MS, Fanning KE ,Thill J , Yedavally S , Fanning C. A study of heart and blood of rodents inhaling diesel engine exhaust particulates. Environ Res.1981; 26:453-462.
Heinrich U, Peters L, Funcke W , Pott F , Mohr U , Stoeber W.(1982) Investigation of toxic and carcinogenic effects of DE in long-term inhalation exposure of rodents. In: Toxicological effects of emissions from diesel engines: proceedings of the Environmental Protection Agency diesel emissions symposium; October 1981; Raleigh NC, Lewtas J. ed. New York: Elsevier Biomedical. 1982: 225-242. (Developments in toxicology and environmental science: v. 10).
PepelkoWE,PeiranoWB. Healtheffects of exposure to diesel engine emissions: a summary of animalstudies conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Health Effects Research Laboratories atCincinnati, Ohio. J Am Coll Toxicol.1983; 2:253-306.
Ochei J, Kolhatkar A . Hematological Procedures.Medical Lab Science .Theory and Practice (6th Ed) .2007:273-287
Pepelko WE. Effects of 28 days exposure to diesel engine emissions in rats. Environ Res 1982;27:16-23.
Janet H.Venous vs Arterial Blood.In: Methods of Blood Collection in Mouse.Lab. animal .2000; Vol 29 No 10.http;//www.lawte.org/materials/hoff. pdf. Accessed 26-03-2010
Wikipidia the free encyclopedia. Respiratory Acidosis. 2010; http://en.wikipedia.org/wikipedia.org/w iki/Respiratory -acidosis.accessed 26—03-2010
CampbellKI,George EL,WashingtonIS, Jr. Enhanced susceptibility to infection in mice after exposure to dilute exhaust from light duty diesel engines. In: Health effects of diesel engine emissions: proceedings of an international symposium, v. 2; December 1979; Cincinnati, OH. Pepelko, WE; Danner, RM; Clarke, NA, eds. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Health Effects Research Laboratory; pp. 772-785; EPA (1980) report no. EPA/600/9-80/057b. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; PB81-173817
Heinrich U, Fuhst R, Rittinghausen S, Creuzenberg O, Bellman B, Koch W, Levsen K. Chronic inhalation exposure of Wistar rats and two different strains of mice to diesel engine exhaust, carbon black, and titantium dioxide. Inhal Toxicol.1995;7:533-556.
Mauderly JL, Benson JM, Bice DE, Handerson RF, Jones RK, McClellan RO, Mokler BV , Pickrell JA, Redman HC ,Wolff RK. (1981) .Observations on rodents exposed for 19 weeks to diluted diesel exhaust. In: Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute annual report 1980- 1981. Albuquerque, NM: Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute.1981: 305-311; report no. LMF- 91.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The data collected from registered and non-registered users of this journal falls within the scope of the standard functioning of peer-reviewed journals. It includes information that makes communication possible for the editorial process; it is used to informs readers about the authorship and editing of content; it enables collecting aggregated data on readership behaviors, as well as tracking geopolitical and social elements of scholarly communication.
This journal’s editorial team uses this data to guide its work in publishing and improving this journal. Data that will assist in developing this publishing platform may be shared with its developer Public Knowledge Project in an anonymized and aggregated form, with appropriate exceptions such as article metrics. The data will not be sold by this journal or PKP nor will it be used for purposes other than those stated here. The authors published in this journal are responsible for the human subject data that figures in the research reported here.
Those involved in editing this journal seek to be compliant with industry standards for data privacy, including the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) provision for “data subject rights” that include (a) breach notification; (b) right of access; (c) the right to be forgotten; (d) data portability; and (e) privacy by design. The GDPR also allows for the recognition of “the public interest in the availability of the data,” which has a particular saliency for those involved in maintaining, with the greatest integrity possible, the public record of scholarly publishing.