Clinical Profile and Outcome of Adult Tetanus in Oghara, Delta State
Keywords:Clinical profile, Tetanus
Background: Tetanus persists to be a global problem due to either failed immunization or poor coverage of many inaccessible populations in both developing and developed societies. Mortality is higher in the developing world with poorly organized health systems. Aim: To report the clinical profile and outcome of tetanus admissions in Delta State University Teaching Hospital , Og h a r a , between June 2010 and April 2015 .
Methods: The records of all patients managed for tetanus on the medical wards and the intensive care unit of the hospital were studied.
Results: Twenty-seven patients comprising 21(77.8%) males and 6 (22.2%) females were diagnosed and managed for tetanus during the period under review. The mean age of the patients was 34.07±1.50 years.The patients were largely of low socioeconomic group. Lower extremity wounds and lesions was the commonest portal of entry,74.1%. The overall case fatality rate (CFR) was 37%. Among those managed in the intensive care unit the case fatality was 50%. The factors significantly associated with increased mortality include short incubation period (p =0.009 ), short onset time (p = 0.001), severity of the disease (p = 0.014) and increasing age (p = 0.03). The commonest complications recorded in this study were laryngeal and pharyngeal spasms, aspiration pneumonia and autonomic dysfunction.
Conclusion: Tetanus is a life-threatening disease with high case fatality that is still a health challenge in our environment. There is a need to provide better vaccination coverage for all including booster doses for adult males and to improve on medical intensive care facilities and training.
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