Isolation and Identification of Non-gonococcal Organisms Associated with Urethritis from Clinical Samples.
Introduction: Urethritis is an inflammation of the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the human body. Many of the Infectious causes of urethritis are sexually transmitted and categorized into gonococcal urethritis (GU) i.e due to infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and non- gonococcal urethritis (NGU) due to organisms other than gonorrhoeae. The main purpose of study was to isolate and identify microbial agent of urethritis.
Material and Methods: Cultural and Biochemical methods were used to isolate and identify microbial agents of urethritis from urine and urethra collected randomly from 200 patients with clinical urethritis.
Results: Nongonococcal agents of urethritis were isolated,they include the following microorganisms Escherichia coli (31.6%) Staphylococcus aureus (19.5%), Candida albicans (15.0%), Proteus mirabilis (13.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.5%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (7.5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (5.3%).Pseudomonas aeruginosa have not been mentioned previously as agent of non gonococcal urethritis.
Conclusion: Agents of nongonococcal-urethritis were isolated. These include three gram-negative rods, two gram-positive cocci, and a fungus.
Terries MK Urethritis emedicine (2006) 1-19 http:www.emedicine.com/med/topics234 2.htmaccessed 25th July 2012.
Thomas E and Herchline MD. Urethritis: Epidemiology. Infectious Disease Antimicrobial Agents.www.anti microbe.org? e14.asp 2014.
McCutchan JA Epidemiology of veneral urethritis comparison of gonorrhoea and non gonorrhoea urethritis. Review of infectiousDiseases1984; 6:669-88.
Thompson SE Washington AE Epidemioly of sexually transmitted Chlamydia trichomatis infections. Epidemiogical Reviews1983;5:96-123.
Weisner PJ Selected Aspects of the Epidemiology of non gonococcal urethritis in Hobson D, Holmes K.K (eds). Nongonococcal Urethritis and Related Infections. Washington DC: American
SocietyforMicrobiology 1977 pp9-13.
Choudry S,Ramachanran VG, Das S Bhattachaya SN and Moghe NS Patterns
of sexually transmitted infections and performance of syndromic management against etiological diagnosis on patient attending the sexually transmitted infection clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Indian Journal of Sexually
Transmitted Diseases 2010;31:104-108.
Horner P, Blee B Ch, O Mechinary C, Muir P, Evans C. and Radcliffe K. European Guideline on the management of non- gonococcal 2014 urethritishttp:// ww.iusti.org/ regions/europe/
word_docs/2014/European_guidelineN GU_draft_10102014.pdf, accessed 20thApril , 2015.
Cheesebrough M Examination of Urine In District laboratory practice in tropical countries part 2. Cambridge University Press. 2004;pp105-115.
Cowan S T, Steel K J, Barrow G I. and Feltham R K A. Cowan and Steel's manual for the identification of medical bacteria Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 1993
Kauffman, C.A, Fisher, J.F, Sobel, J.D. and Cheryl, A. Newman. Candida Urinary Tract Infections--Diagnosis. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 52(6): 452-456.
Eddy AD and Mustapha M. Phenotypic identification of Candida species and their susceptibility profile in patients with genitourinary candidiasis. International Journal of Advanced Research 2014; 2(12) 76- 84.
Holt, J. G., Krieg, N.R., Sneath, P.H., Safety, J.T., Withians, S.T Bergey's manual Determinative Bacteriology. Williams K, Wilkins,O. (Eds),Baltimore.1993.
WHO, Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) fact sheet N0° 110: World Health Organization. Available: www.who.int /.../fs110/, 2103.
Nduche M U and Okwulechie I. Ethnomedical Survey of plants used in treating Sexually transimitted diseases in Abia State Nigeria. Review of Plant studies. 2014;1(1):1-9
Okolie CU and Iroegbu CU Evaluation of extracs of Anthocleistra djalonensis, Nauclea latifolia and Uvaria afzalii for activity against bacterial isolates from cases of nongonococcal urethritis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.2004;92(1):135-44 Ajayi AA, Fayemiwo SA, Bakare RA .International Union Against Sexually Transmitted infections Africa (IUSTI- Africa) Newsletter, Issue 2002;11-12.
Major MPV and Bombey DVD .Non- gonococal urethrities.The Licentiate 1963; 13(4): 109-111.
Varela JA, Otero L. and Garcia MJ Trends in the prevalence of pathogens causing urethritis in Asturias, Spain, 1989–2000 Sexually Transmission Diseases, 2003. 30:280–283.
Dan M, Gottesmen T, Schwartz D, Tsivian A, Gophna U. and Rokney A. Sexually transmitted Escherichia coli urethritis and orchiepidimititis Sexuallytransmitteddisease, 2012; 39 (1).
Barnes RC, Daifuku R, Roddy RE. and StammWE Urinarytract infection in sexually activity in horizontal men Lancet 1986; 1: 171-173.
Ivanov B . Microbiological features of persistent non specific urethritis in men. Journal of Microbiology Immunology and Infection. 2006; 40: 157-161.
Greenwood D, Black RC B. and Peutherer,
MedicalMicrobiology 16th edition.A guide to Microbial Infections, Pathogenesis, Immunity, Laboratory Diagnosis and Control. Elsevier, Churchill Livingstone.2002
Prescott ML, John P, Herlys T, Klein.
Human diseases caused by Bacteria in Microbiology 7th ed 2008; p 973-976. McGraw-Hill international Edition St Louis, Toronto:
Sobel JD, Wiesenteld H C, Martens M, Danna P, Hooton, I M, Rompalo A Sperling M, Livengood C, Horowitz B, ThronJV,EdwardsL,PaizerH.and Chu T C. Maintenance fluconzole therapy for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. The New England Journal of Medicine 2004; 357:876-883.
Beduk Y, Manalp M. Detection of candidiasis in non-gonococcal urethritis resistant to therapy Mikrobiyoloji Buteni 1986; 20(3): 190-5.
Liaw ST. Inhabitation of virulence factor expression and swarmming expressing in P. mirabilis by p- nitrophynol. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2000; 49: 775-731.
Ananthanarayan R. and Paniker CKJ Pseudomonas in Ananthanarayan R, Paniker C.K.J. Editiors. Textbook of Microbiology Hyderabad:UniversityPressIndia) prirate limited: Eight Edition 2009; 315-319.
Hovelius B, Thein I and Mardh PA Staphylococcussaprophyticusintheetiology of nongonococcalurethritis.BritishJournal of Veneral Diseases. 1979; 55:369-374.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The data collected from registered and non-registered users of this journal falls within the scope of the standard functioning of peer-reviewed journals. It includes information that makes communication possible for the editorial process; it is used to informs readers about the authorship and editing of content; it enables collecting aggregated data on readership behaviors, as well as tracking geopolitical and social elements of scholarly communication.
This journal’s editorial team uses this data to guide its work in publishing and improving this journal. Data that will assist in developing this publishing platform may be shared with its developer Public Knowledge Project in an anonymized and aggregated form, with appropriate exceptions such as article metrics. The data will not be sold by this journal or PKP nor will it be used for purposes other than those stated here. The authors published in this journal are responsible for the human subject data that figures in the research reported here.
Those involved in editing this journal seek to be compliant with industry standards for data privacy, including the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) provision for “data subject rights” that include (a) breach notification; (b) right of access; (c) the right to be forgotten; (d) data portability; and (e) privacy by design. The GDPR also allows for the recognition of “the public interest in the availability of the data,” which has a particular saliency for those involved in maintaining, with the greatest integrity possible, the public record of scholarly publishing.