African Journal of Tropical Medicine and Biomedical Research <div class="page" title="Page 2"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The African Journal of Tropical Medicine and Biomedical Research is a multidisciplinary and international journal published by the College of Health Sciences, Delta State University of Abraka, Nigeria.</p> <div class="page" title="Page 2"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>It provides a forum for Authors working in Africa to share their research findings on all aspects of Tropical Medicine and Biomedical Sciences and to disseminate innovative, relevant and useful information on tropical medicine and biomedical sciences throughout the continent... <a title="About the Journal" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Continue Reading.</a></p> <p><strong><br /><a title="Authors Guideline" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instruction for Authors</a> </strong>| <strong><a title="Current Issue" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Current Issue</a> | <a title="Past Issue" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Past Issue</a> </strong>| <strong><a title="contact" href="">Contact/Support</a> </strong></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> College of Health Sciences, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria en-US African Journal of Tropical Medicine and Biomedical Research 2141-6397 <p>The data collected from registered and non-registered users of this journal falls within the scope of the standard functioning of peer-reviewed journals. It includes information that makes communication possible for the editorial process; it is used to informs readers about the authorship and editing of content; it enables collecting aggregated data on readership behaviors, as well as tracking geopolitical and social elements of scholarly communication.</p> <p>This journal’s editorial team uses this data to guide its work in publishing and improving this journal. Data that will assist in developing this publishing platform may be shared with its developer <a href="">Public Knowledge Project</a> in an anonymized and aggregated form, with appropriate exceptions such as article metrics. The data will not be sold by this journal or PKP nor will it be used for purposes other than those stated here. The authors published in this journal are responsible for the human subject data that figures in the research reported here.</p> <p>Those involved in editing this journal seek to be compliant with industry standards for data privacy, including the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (<a href="">GDPR</a>) provision for “<a href="">data subject rights</a>” that include (a) breach notification; (b) right of access; (c) the right to be forgotten; (d) data portability; and (e) privacy by design. The GDPR also allows for the recognition of “the public interest in the availability of the data,” which has a particular saliency for those involved in maintaining, with the greatest integrity possible, the public record of scholarly publishing.</p> Foetal Age Assessment From Femur Length And Biparietal Diameter In Warri, South-south Nigeria. <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Femur length (FL) and biparietal diameter (BPD) are among the foetal biometric parameters used to estimate the gestational age (GA) of the foetus.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of ultrasound generated gestational age (GA) by measuring FL and BPD with the last menstrual period (LMP) in Warri, South-South Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Two hundred and thirteen (213) pregnant women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited into the study. The ultrasound scan measurements of FL and BPD were done in accordance with standard practice. Data were analysed using SPSS 20. Pearson's correlation was used to determine the relationship of GA based on LMP with FL and BPD. T-test was used to determine the differences between the mean GA from LMP, FL and BPD. P value &lt;0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> At 12th weeks, calculated GA (from LMP) was 12.43 weeks and mean FL was 12.74mm corresponding with USS GA of 14.11weeks, while mean BPD was 27.43mm corresponding to USS GA of 14.82 weeks. In both second and third trimesters, there were significant positive correlations between, GA based on FL and LMP; GA based on FL and FL; GA based on BPD and LMP; GA based on BPD and BPD; and GA based on FL and BPD. In the second trimester, the mean GAs based on FL and BPD were significantly higher than that based on LMP, but there was no significant difference between the mean GAs based on FL and BPD. In the third trimester, there was no significant differences in the mean GAs between FL and LMP, BPD and LMP, and FL and BPD.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> FL and BPD increase as the foetal age increases. This study will be of relevance in obstetrics and gynaecology, and in forensic medical practice.</p> </div> </div> </div> Dennis E.O. Eboh NN Akpovwovwo Copyright (c) 2019 2019-09-01 2019-09-01 4 2 6 16 Isolation and Identification of Non-gonococcal Organisms Associated with Urethritis from Clinical Samples. <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Urethritis is an inflammation of the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the human body. Many of the Infectious causes of urethritis are sexually transmitted and categorized into gonococcal urethritis (GU) i.e due to infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and non- gonococcal urethritis (NGU) due to organisms other than gonorrhoeae. The main purpose of study was to isolate and identify microbial agent of urethritis.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> Cultural and Biochemical methods were used to isolate and identify microbial agents of urethritis from urine and urethra collected randomly from 200 patients with clinical urethritis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Nongonococcal agents of urethritis were isolated,they include the following microorganisms Escherichia coli (31.6%) Staphylococcus aureus (19.5%), Candida albicans (15.0%), Proteus mirabilis (13.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.5%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (7.5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (5.3%).Pseudomonas aeruginosa have not been mentioned previously as agent of non gonococcal urethritis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Agents of nongonococcal-urethritis were isolated. These include three gram-negative rods, two gram-positive cocci, and a fungus.</p> </div> </div> </div> P O Adomi Copyright (c) 2020 2019-09-01 2019-09-01 4 2 17 25 Blood Levels of Some Toxic Metals and Their Potential Health Impact in Human Immunodeficiency Type 1 Infected Subjects. <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><strong>Background:</strong> The introduction of antiretroviral therapy in the management of immunodeficiency virus infection has reduced the mortality rate and increased the average life-expectancy of infected subjects. The prevalence of non-infectious chronic diseases and malignancies are also on the rise. Environmental pollutants could adversely impact on the prognostic outcomes of HIV-1 infection probably due to the combination of the effects of environmental exposures and chronic inflammation and the role of toxic metals exposure and their health impact in infected individuals have been under-reported.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the levels of cadmium (Cd),lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and nickel (Ni) in HIV-1 infected subjects on highly active anti-retroviral therapy(HAART), HAART-naïve and discusses their potential health impacts.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> The study participants were 300 made up of 100 confirmed HIV-1 positive on HAART, 100 HIV-1 positive HAART-naïve and 100 HIV-1 negative controls. Measured toxic metal levels were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Agilent 7500, Norwalk, U.S.A)</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Data indicated significantly higher (p&lt;0.001) measured toxic metals in HIV positive subjects than controls, with levels in subjects on HAART higher than HAART-naive.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> High toxic metal levels may lead to increased oxidative stress and adverse prognostic outcomes. Periodic evaluation of toxic metals in HIV-1 infected subjects is suggested and preventive strategies of environmental pollutants should be adopted.</p> </div> </div> </div> I Mbonu EM Abiodun Copyright (c) 2019 2019-09-01 2019-09-01 4 2 26 33 A Study on the Management and Perinatal Outcome of Preterm Prelabour Rupture of Membranes at Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara. <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Preterm Prelabour Rupture of Fetal Membranes and its management is a significant burden in obstetrics, occurring in 2–3% of all pregnancies and leading to 30–40% of preterm births. It is therefore a significant risk factor for perinatal morbidity and mortality arising from its association with fetal prematurity. The aim of this study was to review the management and perinatal outcome of PPROM in Delta State University Hospital, Oghara.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a descriptive retrospective study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Delta State University Teaching Hospital from January 2011 to December 2015. The study included 80 pregnant patients presenting with Preterm prelabour rupture of membranes between 28 to 36weeks+6days.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence of PPROM was 5.7%. Majority of the women were aged between 30-34 and ≥35 years and the mean parity was 1.48±1.55. 37% of the patients presented between 28-31 weeks. No apparent risk factor for PPROM was identified in 26% of the patients. 43% had vaginal delivery and mean birthweight of the babies was 1.53±0.52kg. Majority of the preterm neonates had first and fifth minute Apgar scores greater than 7. Perinatal mortality was 18.8% in this study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Premature Prelabour Rupture of Membrane is associated with poor fetal outcomes arising from the problems of prematurity and neonatal sepsis. A clear understanding of its consequences is essential in providing adequate interventions needed in the prevention of<br>unfavourable perinatal outcomes.</p> </div> </div> </div> EA Onohwakpor E Aramabi Copyright (c) 2019 2019-09-01 2019-09-01 4 2 34 43 Impact of Free Maternity Service on Caesarean Acceptance and Perception in Delta State. South South Nigeria <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><strong>Background.</strong> Although the Increasing rate of Caesarean section has remained a source of concern in different part of the world, it nevertheless remains an important intervention in the reduction of maternal and perinatal mortality during childbirth. Women in developing countries remain averse to caesarean section. The contribution of cost to caesarean section acceptance and perception is not clear.</p> <p><strong>Aims.</strong> To determine the impact of cost-free maternity service on caesarean section acceptance and perception in Delta State. Setting and design. A cross-sectional descriptive study.</p> <p><strong>Subjects and Method.</strong> A structured questionnaire was administered to a total of 600 consenting antenatal women, in two secondary health facilities in Delta State, Eku Baptist Government Hospital(EBGH) and Central Hospital Warri (CHW).</p> <p><strong>Statistical Analysis.</strong> Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 24. With descriptive statistics for frequency, mean and standard deviation. Chi-square and student's t-test for comparison of variables. Level of significance set as p&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> There was no significant difference in the proportion of respondents that have had previous Caesarean section in the two centers, 20.6% and 20.9% at Eku Baptist Government hospital (EBGH) and Central Hospital Warri (CHW) respectively. Cesarean section was acceptable to a large number of the respondents, 60.6% and 68.3% at EBGH and CHW respectively. Average of 15.8% respondents will not accept cesarean section for any reason. Postoperative pain was the major reason of respondents' objecting to Caesarean section in both centers, 38% and 20.5% at EBGH and CHW respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> This study revealed a high level of caesarean section acceptance among pregnant women under free maternity service policy. The need for well informed and continuous health enlightenment during the antenatal visits is required to overcome the negative perception about CS.</p> </div> </div> </div> W.O Odunvbun. AA Nwachi LO Oyeye CI Ojeogwu Copyright (c) 2019 2019-09-01 2019-09-01 4 2 44 50 Profile of Blood Pressure Control and Other Comorbidities Among Medical Outpatients Attending A University Teaching Hospital, South-South Nigeria <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hypertension is the commonest non-communicable diseases worldwide. Patients suffering from this condition may also have other co-morbidities.<br>Aim: To show the profile of blood pressure control among patients attending the Consultant Medical Out-Patient Department (MOPD).</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A retrospective descriptive study of MOPD clinic attendees with hypertension. Patients aged 18 years and above who had both their first and sixth clinic visits between November 2012 and November 2013 were recruited for the study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 150 subjects were enrolled with a mean age 58.3±13.0 years, and 68 (45.3%) were males. The mean SBP, DBP and pulse rates at first and sixth visits were 145.8(±23.3) mmHg, 87.8(±14) mmHg and 83.1(±15.1) bpm, and 138.0(±22.9) mmHg, 84.5(±12.9) mmHg and 80.9(±13.4) bpm, respectively. By the third clinical visit, 67% of the study population had attained target blood pressure control.</p> <p>One hundred and fourteen (76.0%) of the study population had co-morbidities and complications (diabetes, dyslipidemia, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease).&nbsp;All the patients with dyslipidemia were placed on lipid lowering drugs but no repeat test was done during the study period.&nbsp;About 7.3% of the population had adverse drug reactions such as headaches, dizziness, generalized body pains and nausea.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Only 67% of the subjects attained target blood pressure control by the third visit. There is need for more aggressive approach in managing patients with hypertension. It is important to document adverse drug reactions and follow the recommended pharmacovigilance protocol.</p> </div> </div> </div> Ejiroghene Martha Umuerri JO Ohaju-Obodo HO Aiwuyo FI Aigbe Copyright (c) 2020 2019-09-01 2019-09-01 4 2 51 61 Giant Myoepithelioma of the Soft Palate: Report of a case in a Teenage girl <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Giant myoepithelioma is a tumour arising from epithelial cells of mostly the major salivary glands. It is rare in the minor salivary glands .It constitutes less than 1% of salivary gland lesions. It is usually asymptomatic but with increase in size it can elicit pressure and obstructive symptoms as reported in our case.</p> <p><strong>Case Presentation:</strong> This 13-year-old girl presented with swelling on the soft palate for five years. Symptoms included dysphagia, hyper nasal speech, snoring and occasional sleep apnea for two years prior to presentation. Intraoral examination revealed an oval shaped swelling located at the posterior end of the hard palate extending downward and backward pressing on the dorsum of the tongue. CT showed a solid, well-circumscribed oval mass pedunculated at junction of the hard and soft palate. It extended downwards and backwards to the posterior wall of oropharynx. An excisional biopsy was carried out under general anesthesia through the transoral approach. The histology showed myoepithelioma with diffuse infiltrate of plasmacytoid cells. No mitotic figures were seen. The operative site healed without complications. No recurrence three years post op.</p> <p><strong>Discussion:</strong> Myoepithelioma should be distinguished from pleomorphic adenoma because it has been reportedto be more aggressive and occasionally transforms into malignant myoepithelioma, though our case was benign.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Myoepitheliomas are rare salivary gland lesions in comparison to pleomorphic adenomas. When large, they can elicit uncomfortable and sometimes dangerous symptoms. They should be considered more in the differential diagnosis of oral lesions in view of their more aggressive nature.</p> </div> </div> </div> MO Etetafia FN Nwachokor Copyright (c) 2020 2019-09-01 2019-09-01 4 2 62 65